Genomic Technology and its applications in different sectors

by Precious Cyprain
4 mins read
Genomic Technology and its applications

Introduction to Genomic Technology 

Genomic technology is the technology that involves manipulating and analyzing genomic information (i.e., either DNA or RNA in the case of viruses). Genomics, however, is the study of the genomes of an organism (can be human, bacteria, or viruses), its structure, function, evolution and interaction with different genes and its environment. Genomic technology has evolved since 1970 till now starting from the invention of DNA cloning.  

The advancements in genomics since then have skyrocketed, with recent evolutions like DNA synthesis, DNA sequences, macromolecular structure analysis (X-ray crystallography and NMR – Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), transgenic animals (modification of the genome of mammals using the genes of bacteria) and amplification by the polymerase chain reaction.  

Genomic technology is vast in many sectors like the clinical sector where it provides the opportunity to improve healthcare, the agricultural sector where it can be applied in controlling important traits for selection in breeding programs, the biotechnology sector where it’s being used to create partially synthetic species of bacteria, etc. 

Different applications of Genomic Technology 

Clinical applications 

Genomics can be applied in the clinical sector in various ways, which include; 

Identifying and diagnosing genetic factors contributing to common diseases. The use of genomic technology has been applied in researching and understanding rare and common factors that contribute to the development of some diseases e.g., diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, etc. 

Pharmacogenetics and aimed therapy. With the use of genomic technology, the response of a person to a particular drug, how well they respond to the drug and the possible side effects from the use of the drug can all be predicted. This helps in making targeted decisions on the proper drug treatment to use. In the case of certain diseases, the genetic factors that drive the diseases are identified and drugs are administered to aim for that pathway. 

Control of infectious diseases. Genome sequencing of infection-causing microorganisms in humans can help to identify the exact causative organism of a symptom, help to trace the definite cause of an infectious outbreak and also provide information on the antibiotics that would be most suitable and effective for the treatment.  

Gene discovery and identification of rare monogenic disorders. Genetic error-causing diseases have been identified in patients that are at high risk by clinicians with the help of genomic technology. Also, genes which cause genetic diseases are being discovered at an efficient rate. Now, the genetic cause of over 4,000 diseases has been discovered. 

Disease awareness. Genomic technology has led to the expansion in the understanding of rare and common diseases like cystic fibrosis, cancer, heart disease, Huntington’s disease, etc.  

Prenatal diagnosis and testing. Prenatal detection of genetic diseases helps the parents to make decisions about whether to keep the baby or to allow in-utero treatment. Genomic technology has also provided a method of checking the DNA of a fetus through a maternal blood test while reducing the risk of miscarriage.  

Genome editing. This involves the use of molecular procedures to alter the genome by adding, cutting or substituting divisions of the DNA sequence. 

Gene therapy. This is a medical treatment technique that involves preventing or treating diseases by rectifying the underlying genetic issue. In gene therapy, there is an administration of RNA or DNA to alter the patient’s genetic makeup rather than the use of drugs or other medical procedures. 

Personalized medication. Genomic technologies give rise to the use of a patient’s genetic information to give a customized healthcare intervention fit for the needs of the particular patient. This is possible because the genome of every human has a distinctive DNA sequence, therefore we all each have a unique treatment response and disease vulnerability. 

Agricultural applications 

Breeding of trees: Genomic technology has led to the introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies which provide new tools and procedures for recognizing the genes that control important traits for selection in breeding programs. DNA sequencing technologies have offered complete annotated sequences in various important tree species.  

 Biotechnology applications 

With the help of this technology, scientific research has led to the creation of partially synthetic species of bacteria with the use of natural species. The new synthetic species ends up having unlike characteristics from that of the original bacteria.

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zoritoler imol April 21, 2023 - 4:15 am

This actually answered my downside, thanks!

Precious Cyprain April 21, 2023 - 8:42 am

You’re welcome. Thanks for reading!


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