Definition of Artificial Intelligence
In recent times, Artificial Intelligence (AI), has come to be seen as a complex, grey area, but, in its simplest form, artificial intelligence is the intelligence displayed by machines. This intelligence, of course, differs from the Natural Intelligence exhibited by Humans and Animals.
Dr. John McCarthy defined Artificial Intelligence as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.” This definition by Dr. John McCarthy sure does outline the main concept on which artificial intelligence is based upon.
The term artificial intelligence may also be used to describe the ability of machines and programs, and the intelligence exhibited by such machines or programs. Interestingly, it would be worthy of note that other names have been proposed for the field, such as computational intelligence, synthetic intelligence, or computational rationality. But the name artificial intelligence seems more suitable.
How Do Artificial Intelligence Work:
Artificial Intelligence systems are built based on human behaviors and characteristics. It involves the process of reverse-engineering human qualities and capabilities in a machine and using its computational prowess to surpass that of humans. Certain means are utilized by AI’s in performing their tasks. Such tools include; machine learning, deep learning, natural language processing, computer vision, cognitive computing, and neural network. These tools are what enable artificial intelligence to be able to function properly.
Aspects of Artificial Intelligence
The aspects of Artificial Intelligence include; artificial narrow intelligence; also called weak AI, artificial general intelligence; also called strong AI, and the third one, artificial superintelligence.
1) Artificial Narrow Intelligence: this type of AI is designed to perform a limited predefined set of specific tasks. They have narrow capabilities but are proficient at performing the tasks assigned. Though proficient and sophisticated, artificial narrow intelligence does not demonstrate self-awareness7 or genuine intelligence. Example of Artificial Narrow Intelligence includes; Alexa, Facial recognition, autopilot on Tesla cars. etc.
2) Artificial General Intelligence: this involves machines that have been designed in such a way that they possess the ability to perform any intellectual task that a human being can. Examples of such include; IBM’s Watson, Fujitsu’s K.
3) Artificial Super Intelligence: this refers to the time when artificial intelligence will be far more advanced than the best humans. Even though it is still a subject of speculation, it has garnered a lot of attention from experts in the field. It remains to be seen if artificial intelligence will ever reach this stage.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence:
There are various purposes for which artificial intelligence was created. They include, but are not limited to; problem-solving, knowledge representation, general and social intelligence, natural language processing, robotics, and so on.
Artificial Intelligence has cut across all ramifications of human life. And its applications can be seen in virtually all walks of life. Examples of such include; Social media; social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook make use of artificial intelligence to detect and delete hate speeches and so on. In Finance; J.P. Morgan’s Contract Intelligence (COiN) which is used to analyze files and documents, Health care; IBM Watson, Google AI Eye doctor; Virtual assistants; Self-driving cars and Games. Just to mention a few.
Should Human Beings Feel Threatened By Artificial Intelligence:
Asides from the threat that AI poses in the form of AI terrorism, accelerated hacking, AI bias, loss of certain jobs, etc, experts and “tech guys” in the field of computer sciences and other closely related fields have expressed misgivings about artificial intelligence and the dangers they could pose to humans at large. In fact, Elon Musk was quoted as saying “AI poses a fundamental risk to the existence of human civilization” and also; Stephen Hawking, said about artificial intelligence that “strong AI would take off on its own, and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. Humans who are limited by slow biological evolution, would not be able to compete and would be superseded.” But then, other experts also have different views about the whole issue of artificial intelligence. As some think that Artificial Intelligence does not pose a threat to humans’ existence, but rather serves as a means of augmentation. It remains to be seen which opinions are right.